1. U.S. Overdose Deaths In 2021 Increased Half as Much as in 2020 – But Are Still Up 15%. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2022/202205.htm
  2. Vowles KE, McEntee ML, Julnes PS, Frohe T, Ney JP, van der Goes DN. Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis. Pain. 2015;156(4):569-576.
  3. Why guidelines for primary care providers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/guideline_infographic-a.pdf
  4. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdmp/providers.html
  5. PDMP policies and practices. Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.pdmpassist.org/Policies
  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Accessed July 1, 2022. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt35325/NSDUHFFRPDFWHTMLFiles2020/2020NSDUHFFR1PDFW102121.pdf
  7. Jones CM. Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers—United States, 2002-2004 and 2008-2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132(1-2):95-100.
  8. Issue brief: Nation’s drug-related overdose and death epidemic continues to worsen. American Medical Association website. https://www.ama-assn.org/system/files/issue-brief-increases-in-opioid-related-overdose.pdf
  9. U.S. state opioid dispensing rates, 2020. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed July 1, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/rxrate-maps/state2020.html

*Funding for this initiative was made possible (in part) by grant no. 1H79TI085588 from SAMHSA. It was originally funded by the FDA of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as part of financial assistance award U18FD004593. The views expressed on this website do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the HHS; nor does mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the FDA/HHS or the U.S. Government.

References
  1. U.S. Overdose Deaths In 2021 Increased Half as Much as in 2020 – But Are Still Up 15%. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2022/202205.htm
  2. Vowles KE, McEntee ML, Julnes PS, Frohe T, Ney JP, van der Goes DN. Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis. Pain. 2015;156(4):569-576.
  3. Why guidelines for primary care providers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/guideline_infographic-a.pdf
  4. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdmp/providers.html
  5. PDMP policies and practices. Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center website. Accessed August 6, 2021. https://www.pdmpassist.org/Policies
  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Accessed July 1, 2022. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt35325/NSDUHFFRPDFWHTMLFiles2020/2020NSDUHFFR1PDFW102121.pdf
  7. Jones CM. Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers—United States, 2002-2004 and 2008-2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132(1-2):95-100.
  8. Issue brief: Nation’s drug-related overdose and death epidemic continues to worsen. American Medical Association website. https://www.ama-assn.org/system/files/issue-brief-increases-in-opioid-related-overdose.pdf
  9. U.S. state opioid dispensing rates, 2020. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed July 1, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/rxrate-maps/state2020.html